The Decorative After Miriam Schapiro
From March 22 to September 9, 2018, the Museum of Arts and Design (MAD) presents Surface/Depth: The Decorative After Miriam Schapiro, an exhibition showcasing 29 collage paintings by feminist artist Miriam Schapiro in conversation with 28 works by nine contemporary artists: Sanford Biggers, Josh Blackwell, Edie Fake, Jeffrey Gibson, Judy Ledgerwood, Jodie Mack, Sara Rahbar, Ruth Root, and Jasmin Sian. Bringing into focus the key, but unheralded, role Schapiro played in the reframing of craft and decoration in the American art world, this juxtaposition of historic and contemporary work highlights ways in which the decorative continues to be utilized as a critical tool in art today.
“Many contemporary artists outside of the studio-craft tradition of the 1950s and 1960s now work across the fields of art and craft, openly using techniques and materials traditionally associated with craft in ways unheard of even a decade ago, and Schapiro is an important, but unacknowledged, source for that phenomenon,” said Elissa Auther, MAD’s Windgate Research and Collections Curator. 
Historically marginalized as ornament, pattern, or craft, decoration is often dismissed as mere surface, an attractive object with no underlying depth or meaning. To this day, to dismiss a work of art as “decorative” is to judge it as minor, reveling in surface-level expression over any commitment to intellectual rigor or cultural critique. In the early 1970s, within the context of the women’s art movement, Schapiro reappropriated the decorative in a new type of work she would come to call femmage (a combination of feminine and collage), a collage-painting hybrid inspired by women’s domestic arts and handicrafts.
Her objective in embracing the decorative was to catalyze a seismic transformation in the perception of materials, processes, and styles rooted in craft, women’s experience in the home, and everyday forms of making, recasting practices like embroidery, crochet, paper crafts, and even decoupage as legitimately artistic. For Schapiro, the absence of such work from the cultural record was a reflection of the broader patriarchal devaluation of the woman artist, and she viewed her work as a feminist intervention in the history of art.
In Surface/Depth, Schapiro’s 29 works on view are exhibited alongside a range of archival material, including her writings, fabric swatches, costume jewelry, and women’s needlework, all of which contextualize her invention of the femmage by illustrating the rich vein of material culture she mined.
The exhibit includes Schapiro’s earliest femmages including Curtains (1972) and Beauty of Summer (1973–1974), as well as later works inspired by Persian miniature painting, such as Gates of Paradise (1980) and Tapestry of Paradise (1980). Also on view are several of the artist’s shaped canvases referencing the feminine and domestic realms: Orange Crush (1979) and Mexican Memory (1981) take the shape of a lady’s handheld fan, with its connotations of female decorum, while the heart-shaped Baby Block Bouquet (1981), Mardi Gras (1982), and Pagoda (1982) evoke associations with valentine making and scrapbooking, both traditionally considered women’s domestic craft forms. Schapiro’s monumentally sized hearts are treated with a surface density that, combined with the works’ sentimental, folk art, and romantic connotations, elevated decoration to a new height. In Baby Block Bouquet, for example,she combines the heart with the quilt pattern “Baby Blocks,” which dates back as far as ancient Greece. The artist drew inspiration from a wide variety of visual and material traditions, as further evidenced by the Asian-inspired patterns in Pagoda and the use of glitter and sequins in the carnival-themed Mardi Gras.
Other highlights of the exhibit include: 
Ruth Root’s inventively shaped paintings are comprised of two separate, interlocking units: a painted lower panel, hung from a buckle-like upper panel made of canvas and covered in a fabric of the artist’s own design. 
The drawings and paper cuts by New York–based Filipino artist Jasmin Sian reflect a range of decorative sources usually found on the ornamented borders of religious imagery. Through a labor-intensive process of drawing, painting in ink and gouache, and cutting minuscule shapes to create nets, filigrees, and floral motifs, she treats secular images—trees from Yosemite, plants from New York City’s parks and community gardens, and animals from the Central Park Zoo—with devotion, transforming what is usually understood as a decorative border into the subject of the work of art, and elevating the ornately decorative to the level of the divine.
American/Iranian artist Sara Rahbar’s ongoing “Flag”series comprises assemblages that combine the American flag with a variety of Middle Eastern textiles, livestock tack, equestrian gear, tags, embroidered badges, and camouflage. The collision of decorative surfaces and ethnic patterns with the American flag—itself a patchwork textile—reflects both personal and political issues related to the restless feeling of living between two countries.
Known for his sculpture and performances that incorporate the use of materials such as clay and found objects, and in particular the beads, ribbons, and metal jingle cones essential to Native American ceremonial garments and dance regalia worn at powwows, Jeffrey Gibson (who is Choctaw and Cherokee) speaks to the power of ornament to transport the wearer from the secular to the spiritual realm, blurring the boundaries between creative practice and everyday forms of activity.
Ooo Oui and Dagu exemplify Sanford Biggers’ embellishment of found quilts with his own abstract language, including cosmic and celestial imagery, and sequins to highlight the nearly hidden geometry of a Tumbling Blocks pattern constructed in the “crazy quilt” style. 
Tapping into the false dichotomy between surface and depth, and reclaiming the decorative, Edie Fake’s series of drawings, “Memory Palaces,” commemorates the loss of friends and activists, as well as real or imagined spaces of queer and feminist social life in Chicago, while conflating unrestrained color and kaleidoscopic patterning with queer history. 
Josh Blackwell’s embroidered sculptures bridge feminist and queer art worlds. Inspired by the feminist elevation of women’s needlecraft, his work also addresses the construction of homosexuality as a condition of all surface and no depth. His Neveruses, hybrid objects made from recovered plastic bags and colored fibers such as wool yarn, silk thread, and patterned cloth, reference baskets, textiles, and ceramics as well as techniques that are traditionally marginalized under the category of “craft.”
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